5 Analysis of Design
5. 1 Problem
Here is a section of source code analysis. An example analysis was performed using trace mode-2 in Veritak Simulator. (Off course, you can use another tool).

Load Veritak Project "altera_rtl_trace_count.vtakprj"
Let's look at the instruction "ori $sp,$sp,#$3380". Micro operation is

$sp | #$3380 => $sp

It is noted that Register File $sp has not been written yet even at Stage5.
What will be happened if $sp is referenced in any stage of stage2-stage5 ? This is called RAW (Read After Write) Data Hazard.
Forwarding mechanism overcomes this problem.

Time Slot Stage1 Stage2 Stage3 Stage4 Stage5
  Set Register File Address Read Register File
ALU_LEFT/Right Latch
Mem Write
Mem Read
Write Register File
1 Fetch & Decode
ori $sp,$sp,#$3380
2 Fetch & Decode
sw $z0,0($a0)
3 Fetch & Decode
slt $v1,$a0,$a1
ReadRegisterFile ALU=LEFT(0) or RIGHT(#$3380);
4 ReadRegisterFile ALU NReg<=AReg
Register FieAddres=$sp
Write Data=#$3380
7 WB

5.2 "Forwarding" Analysis

Let's look at tool-tip displays "sw $z0, 0($a0)"
This instruction causes RAM Write operation at the address of 0x928 followed by 2 clocks. However, 0x928(=$a0) has been set by the instruction ori $a0,$a0,0x928 prior to 5cycles. So this is the forwarding case.

Pipelined Registers carry 0x928 in forwarding.
Let' trace the situation back in following analysis.

0: 3c1c0000 lui $gp,0x0
4: 379c0000 ori $gp,$gp,0x88a0
8: 3c040000 lui $a0,0x0
c: 34840000 ori $a0,$a0,0x928

10: 3c050000 lui $a1,0x0
14: 34a50000 ori $a1,$a1,0x934
18: 3c1d0000 lui $sp,0x0
1c: 37bdfff0 ori $sp,$sp,0x3f80
20: ac800000 sw $zero,0($a0)

24: 0085182a slt $v1,$a0,$a1
28: 1460fffd bnez $v1,0x20
2c: 24840004 addiu $a0,$a0,4
30: 0c00019d jal 0x674

To investigate what is driving the Daddress 0x928, Jump to tag file,

Then jump to the tag file which describes entire structure of design by text file.

Move to SourceDriver =>Assigned:
Select the signal,and DBLCLICK

Jumps to the source code where DAddress is assigned.
We realize that DAddress is result of ( not time consuming) add operation between alu_source and IRD2 concerned.

There is another way to jump to the driver.
You can jump to the source code by "Jump to Driver" directly.
Set T1 cursor at write strobe time, select the signal ,and Jump to Driver..

Same result as tag-jump.

Since this assignment is combinational logic, you can view the value by tool tip.

Now, we realize that "alu_source" is 32'h928 which is next target for further analysis.

Add "alu_source " to WaveformView for further analysis.

Jump to Driver for "alu_source"

Warning Displayed.

Expand the signal to bits.

Then jump to driver by any signal activated.

Then jumps to the position. This is combinational circuit which has no time-consumption. We can tool-tip the value in this case.

Add "alu_left_latch " to the WaveformView for further analysis.

Jump to Driver..

Jumps to the position where "alu_left_latch" is assigned by non-blocking statement

Jump to Driver by "DReg" at T1 cursor.

We realize "DReg " is just pipelined register

Let's investigate what is driving "RReg".

NReg is Driving.

What is driving "NReg" ?

"AReg" is driving.

What is driving "AReg"?

"alu_out " is driving.

Then investigate the driver of "alu_out".

We realize alu_out=a | b;

Finally We understand "the value 0x928 is derived from the instruction " ori $a0, $a0,#$928" through pipelined registers ,not from register file's output. You can see block diagram I wrote ,which is a sketch in early design stage.